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2012年12月大学英语四级写作方法:简洁才是美

2015-01-05 英语四级 评论0条 阅读 次

Stylish English is ...

Concise

简洁才是美

好的写作,首先而且至关重要的一点就是简洁。繁冗的写作堆砌了许多无用的词藻,反而减弱表述的清晰度。当然,也不能仅仅因为简短就认为短句一定优于长句。只要一个单词确实能起到一定的作用,它就应该留在句中。一般来说,只有在进行强调或修饰、美化句子时,才能使用重复的单词、语音和短语。修改文章,就是要删繁就简。比较下面这对句子,注意体会二者的差别及效果。

1) Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Japan by means of a big boat.

2) Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Japan by boat.

斜体字部分较啰嗦,因为"by"就是"by means of boat"。

请看下列例句

Wordy: It makes me feel painful to think that she has to work 12 hours a day and seven days a week.

Better: It pains me to think that she has to work 12 hours a day and seven days a week.

Wordy: It will be our aim to ensure proper health care for each and every one of the Chinese people.

Better: Our aim is to ensure proper health care for all Chinese.

Wordy: This book will help you master the basic elements of good writing.

Better: This book will help you master the basics of good writing.

Wordy: The search of the forest that they conducted was entirely complete.

Better: The search of the forest was complete.

或They conducted a complete search of the forest.

第二个句子合乎汉语表达习惯,即他们对森林进行了彻底的搜查。

Wordy: He has no sense of principles, whether he is in public or in private.

Better: He has no principles, public or private.

Wordy: Whenever anyone telephoned her to ask her for help with their homework she always obliged right away.

Better: She immediately obliged anyone who telephoned for help with homework.

Wordy: In a cautious manner the car went around the corner.

Better: The car negotiated the corner.

Wordy: If the government agency finds that an individual has received a payment to which the individual was not entitled, whether or not the payment was due to the individual’s fault or misrepresentation, the individual shall be liable to repay to the government the total sum of the payment to which the individual was not entitled.

Better: If the government agency finds that you received a payment that you weren’t entitled to, you must pay the entire sum back.

Wordy: Another important aspect is good health. It is one of our great blessings. It may be achieved through proper diet and exercise. Rest is also desirable.

Better: The great blessing of good health may be had through proper diet, exercise, and rest.

词语简化的一些技巧

2 策略之一:用介词短语替代从句。

例:

Wordy: While they were playing tennis, she started an argument that lasted all morning.

Better: During tennis she started an argument that lasted all morning.

Wordy: When you come to the second traffic light, turn right.

Better: At the second traffic light turn left.

2 策略之二:删除诸如"who is”或"that is"之类的关系代词,变从句为短语。

例:

Wordy: The novel, which is written in three parts, told a story that took place in the Middle Ages.

Better: The three-part novel told a story set in the Middle Ages.

注:把句中的”three parts”改用形容词来表达,节省了四个不必要的单词”which is written in”。我们经常可以将关系代词如”that”去掉,这只会引起最少的变动。

2 策略之三:剔除你不需要的单词

"Two joint partners will present their views over a long-distance telephone call. "

写完这样的句子后,你自己再读一遍,挑出单词”joint”和”telephone”,注意删去不必要的词。

2 策略之四:表达否定意义时,尽量避免使用否定词。英语中很多词不用 "no’s" 或者"not’s"也能表达否定含义的词汇,你尽可以采取更为委婉的表达方式。

例:

Thus college students who do not have sufficient financial backing ,

也就是 college students who lacks sufficient financial backing。

如果你不想使用太多的否定词,就应该尽量避免使用它们。

Wordy(赘语)

Improved(替换语)

as a usual rule

as a rule

at that point in time

then

at this point in time

now

at your earliest convenience

now, soon

concerning the matter of

about

due to the fact that

because

for the reason that

because

has proved itself to be

has proved, is

in connection with

with

in order to

to

in relation to

with

in the event that

if

modern factories of today

modern factories

next steps to take

next steps

puzzling in nature

puzzling

regardless of the fact

although

the reason why is that

because

total effect of all this

total effect

with reference to

about

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